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PUBLICATIONID : 56087
PUBLICATIONTYPE : 1
TYPE : Article
TITLE : Normalized tornado damage in the United States: 1950-2011
ORIG_TITLE : Normalized tornado damage in the United States: 1950-2011
AUTHOR : Simmons, KM, D Sutter and R Pielke
FIRST_AUTHOR : Simmons, KM, D Sutter and R Pielke
AUTHOR_COUNT : 1
ADDRESS : [Simmons, Kevin M.] Austin Coll, Dept Econ & Business Adm, Sherman, TX 75090 USA; [Sutter, Daniel] Troy Univ, Sorrell Coll Business, Troy, AL 36082 USA; [Pielke, Roger] Univ Colorado, Environm Studies Program, Boulder, CO 80309 USA
PUBLISHER : TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
FIRSTAUTHOREMPLOYER : 3
ABBREV_JOURNAL : Environ. Hazards
BEGINPAGE : 132
ENDPAGE : 147
VOLUME : 12
ISSUE : 2
PUBLISH_DATE : 1-Jun
YEAR : 2013
URL : http://sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/publications/special/normalized_tornado_damage.html
REFEREED : 1
RESOURCE : WOS:000318777400003
CITATION : 17
DEPT : CSTPR
LAST_UPDATED : 2017-05-24 12:54:16
ISSN : 1747-7891
IDS : 142DU
DOI : 10.1080/17477891.2012.738642
ABSTRACT : In 2011, thunderstorms in the United States resulted in 550 deaths from tornadoes and more than $28 billion in property damage, according to data from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, with the vast majority of economic losses resulting from tornadoes. This article normalizes U.S. tornado damage from 1950 to 2011, using several methods. A normalization provides an estimate of the damage that would occur if past events occurred under a common base year's societal conditions. We normalize for changes in inflation and wealth at the national level and changes in population, income and housing units at the county level. Under several methods, there has been a sharp decline in tornado damage. This decline corresponds with a decline in the reported frequency of the most intense (and thus most damaging) tornadoes since 1950. However, quantification of trends in tornado incidence is made difficult due to discontinuities in the reporting of events over time. The normalized damage results are suggestive that some part of this decline may reflect actual changes in tornado incidence, beyond changes in reporting practices. In historical context, 2011 stands out as one of the most damaging years of the past 61 years and provides an indication that maximum damage levels have the potential to increase should societal change lead to increasing exposure of wealth and property.
KEYWORDS : tornado; damage; normalization; economics; United States
AREA : Environmental Sciences & Ecology
FIRST_AUTHOR_EMAIL : pielke@colorado.edu
PUBLICATION : ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS-HUMAN AND POLICY DIMENSIONS
PLACE : ABINGDON
LANGUAGE : English
SERIAL : 56087
PAGES : 132-147
APPROVED : yes
SERIES_VOLUME_NUMERIC : 1
ONLINE_PUBLICATION : no
VERSION : 1
FIRST_AUTHOR_ADDRESS : Pielke, R (reprint author), Univ Colorado, Environm Studies Program, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
AUTHOR_OTHER_FORM : Simmons, Kevin M.; Sutter, Daniel; Pielke, Roger
REFERENCES_NUM : 23
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PUBLISHER_ADDRESS : 4 PARK SQUARE, MILTON PARK, ABINGDON OX14 4RN, OXON, ENGLAND
COUNT : 1
VETTED : 1