"A tropical cyclone develops over tropical or subtropical waters. Severe tropical cyclones, with winds of 74 miles (119 kilometers) per hour or more, are called hurricanes or typhoons, depending on where they form. Hurricanes form in the North Atlantic or eastern North Pacific, and typhoons form in the Western Pacific. These storms may bring winds up to 180 miles (290 kilometers) an hour, terrific rains,
violent thunder, and lightning. They measure 200 to 300 miles (320 to 480 kilometers) across." From: World Book Encyclopedia
Section 1. Organizations and
doubt many are familiar with the annual forecasts of Atlantic
hurricane activity issued by Professor William Gray and his
colleagues at Colorado State University. This official Web site
of that group provides much more than the usual bare-bones CNN
Bill Gray sound bites. Rather, it offers in-depth information
on both the processes and the results of the group's extensive
investigations into pre-season climatological signals that anticipate
upcoming hurricane activity.
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of Climate, Water, and Weather Services - Hurricane Awareness
- This site provides several on-line preparedness guides in
both Spanish and English, current watches and warnings, on-line
tracking charts, and links to many of the national agencies
dealing with hurricane preparedness, response, and recovery.
- Tropical Prediction
- The mission of the Tropical Prediction Center is to save lives
and protect property by issuing watches, warnings, forecasts,
and analyses of hazardous weather conditions in the tropics.
TPC products are generated for use in both the domestic and
Section 2. General Resources
- Benfield Greig Hazard Research
Centre Seasonal Forecasts of Extreme Weather Events
- This site includes long-range forecasts for U.S. landfalling
and Atlantic hurricanes, Far East landfalling and NW Pacific
typhoons, and Australian landfalling and SW Pacific cyclones.
- Coastal Hazards
- This site contains a 10-chapter monograph on coastal hazards,
detailed coastal hazard maps for all coastal states, photos
of property damage from several recent hurricanes, and a list
of coastal hazard links for each state.
- This site includes videos, publications, and links to information
about hurricane mitigation measures.
Weather Sourcebook 2001
- This updated site provides quick access to data on economic
damage from hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, lightning, and other
weather phenomena in the United States and its territories.
Visitors to the Extreme Weather Sourcebook will find the states
and U.S. territories ranked in order of economic losses from
hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, and all three events combined.
A dollar figure for average annual losses for each state is
also provided. Links take the reader to graphs with more detailed
information on cost per year for each state and each hazard.
Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Tropical Cyclones
- What a cyclone is, how it forms, definitions of terms, where
to get more information primarily on the physical/meteorological
aspects of cyclones rather than their societal impacts.
Historical Hurricane Tracks site contains an interactive mapping
application that allows users to query and display 150 years
of Atlantic Basin tropical cyclone data from the National Hurricane
Center's Tropical Cyclone Best Track data set. The ability to
plot user-defined portions of the data set and download credible
and reliable data will enhance knowledge of hurricane climatology
for any location within the Atlantic Basin. The web site includes
text documents detailing particular storm events and graphs
showing historical population data versus hurricane strikes
for coastal counties from Texas to Maine.
Hurricane Andrew in South Florida: Mesoscale Weather and Societal
Roger Pielke Jr.
- The first report of the Extreme Mesoscale Events and Impacts
Project. The report's purposes are to reframe the US hurricane
problem in terms of societal vulnerability by discussing trends
in coastal population, property development, and hurricane incidence;
to place hurricane forecasts in the broader context of societal
preparedness and response; and to review the Andrew experience
in that broader context. An appendix to the report provides
an annotated bibliography of various articles, reports, and
journal articles that discuss Andrew's societal impacts.
Georges and Mitch Preparedness Conclusions
- The summary conclusions from the meeting,"Evaluation of the
Preparedness for and Response to Hurricanes Georges and Mitch."
Also available on this site are the draft reports from the countries
affected by Hurricanes Georges and Mitch, the final list of
participants from the meeting, the program, and related press
- Hurricanes: Nature's
- This NOAA site presents the latest hurricane news and extensive
background information, as well as links to numerous sources
of hurricane information, including local sites.
Niņa, El Niņo, and Atlantic Hurricane Damages in the United
Roger Pielke Jr. and Christopher W. Landsea
- Hurricanes result in considerable damage in the United States.
Previous work has shown that Atlantic hurricane landfalls in
the United States have a strong relationship with the El Niņo-Southern
Oscillation phenomena. This paper compares the historical record
of La Niņa and El Niņo events defined by eastern Pacific sea
surface temperature with a dataset of hurricane losses normalized
to 1997 values. A significant relationship is found between
the ENSO cycle and U.S. hurricane losses, with La Niņa years
exhibiting much more damage. Used appropriately, this relationship
is of potential value to decision makers who are able to manage
risk based on probabilistic information.
Coastal Change Hazards
- Resource managers must be able to predict where and how much
coastal change will occur to locate new construction landward
of coastal change hazards. Developing this predictive capability
requires quantifying how coasts respond to extreme storms. U.S.
Geological Survey (USGS) scientists, in partnership with NASA,
have developed a new extreme-storm hazards map and a new scale
that categorizes expected coastal change (erosion and accretion)
that occurs during storms. Both are available on this site.
Climatic Data Center Hurricane Maps
- A complete resource of hurricane maps from 1899-1996.
- The 2001
National Hurricane Operation Plan
Natural Disaster & Emergency Preparedness
Hurricane Damages in the United States: 1925-1995
Roger Pielke Jr.
- More appropriate trends in United States hurricane damages
can be calculated when a normalization of the damages is done
to take into account inflation, and changes in coastal population
of Climate, Water, and Weather Services Service Assessments
- This link has data on many different hurricanes. These links
are in.pdf format; you will need ACROBAT
to read these files.
- Preparing for Natural Disasters
- Presented by insurancelinked.com
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Response to Hurricane Evacuation Orders
- A Quick Response Report by Dr. Kirstin Dow and Susan L. Cutter
- STORM2001 Hurricane Central
- A complete resource covering the recent U.S. hurricane season.
Sun-Sentinel's Hurricane Page
- Thirty years
After Hurricane Camille: Lessons Learned, Lessons Lost
Roger Pielke Jr., Chantal Simonpietri, and Jennifer Oxelson
- The thirtieth anniversary of Camille's landfall presents an
opportunity to raise the issue of a national hurricane policy
and to assess what has been learned in the three decades since.
- This brochure, published by the Florida Capital Area Chapter
of the American Red Cross and the Leon County, Florida, Sheriff's
Office Division of Emergency Management, instructs residents
of mobile/manufactured homes how to prepare for the high winds
of a hurricane.
- Tropical Cyclone
Forecasters' Reference Guide
- Worldwide improvements in tropical cyclone forecasting skills
in recent decades have been due largely to collaboration on
communications, development of powerful observational tools
including data acquisition and processing systems, a growing
demand for timely warnings and accurate forecasts, and improved
conceptual, theoretical, and numerical weather prediction models
of tropical cyclone structure and motion. The Guide offers an
account of these issues and investigations, and their status
and results to tropical cyclone forecasters.
cyclones that have affected Southern California during the 20th
- The National Weather Service at Oxnard, California, has put
together a list of 20th century tropical cyclone, and associated
El Niņo events, which affected southern California.
- Weather maps, reports, forecasts, products, news, software,
outlooks, and discussions.
Today's Guide to Hurricane Information
Hurricanes and Coastal Storm Websites
- This site includes links to other USGS sites that provide
real-time data, background maps and studies, historical analyses
of specific storms, and other reports about hurricanes.
- The Weather Channel
Forum on Hurricane Preparedness and Response
- The findings and recommendations of The Weather Channel Forum
on Hurricane Preparedness and Response, developed by the Atmospheric
Policy Program of the American Meteorological Society (AMS),
suggest that our nation is at serious risk of severe damage
and loss of life caused by hurricanes. The forum report, available
from the AMS Web site, calls for an assessment of the vulnerability
of communities with potential exposure to hurricanes and the
development of improvements in the preparedness, prediction,
communications, and response strategies at the national, regional,
and local levels. To find the report, click on "Atmospheric
Policy Program" on the left side of the home page, then "Report
of the Weather Channel Forum."
Societal Aspects of Weather Home Page
Roger Pielke, Jr.'s Home Page
Aspects of Weather Home Page - Text Version ]