Societal Aspects
of Weather

tornadoes tornadoes

"Tornadoes have struck every U.S. state, including Alaska and Hawaii. But most tornadoes form in a belt from Nebraska southward through central Texas known as "Tornado Alley" and in the Southeast. Wind speeds in tornadoes can vary from 72 to almost 300 mph." From: USA Today

Section 1. Organizations and Agencies

Section 2. General Resources

Section 1. Organizations and Agencies

American Association for Wind Engineering
The American Association for Wind Engineering has promoted and disseminated research results in the field of wind engineering since 1970. The multi-disciplinary field of wind engineering encompasses problems related to wind loads on buildings and structures, societal impacts of hurricanes and tornadoes, risk assessment and cost-benefit, codes and standards, dispersion of urban and industrial pollution, wind engineering and urban aerodynamics.

Milwaukee Area Skywarn Association, Inc.
Storm Spotters network of the Milwaukee area for the SKYWARN system.

National Severe Storms Laboratory
One of NOAA's Environmental Research Laboratories, dedicated to improving the nation's severe weather warnings and forecasts.

Storm Chaser Homepage
October 5, 2000 marks the first official day of the new Storm Track Storm Chaser Homepage. This new site is an official merger of the old Storm Track (ST) and NIU Storm Chaser Homepage (SCH).

Storm Prediction Center
The Storm Prediction Center (SPC) is part of the National Weather Service (NWS) and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Its mission is to provide timely and accurate forecasts and watches for severe thunderstorms and tornadoes over the contiguous United States. It uses the most advanced technology and scientific methods available to achieve this goal.

TORRO: The Tornado and Storm Research Organisation
A privately supported research body serving the national public interest.

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Section 2. General Resources

Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC)
The November 14, 1997, Vol. 46, No. 45 issue of the "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" (MMWR) of the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) includes an article, "Tornado Disaster - Texas, May 1997." From time to time, the MMWR contains analyses of deaths and injuries due to recent disasters. This article is in.pdf format; you will need ACROBAT to read this file.

Committee Hearings - 106th Congress
Tornadoes: Understanding, Modeling and Forecasting Supercell Storms. June 16, 1999 hearing.

Disaster Survery from NOAA
Report on the Ft. Smith and Van Buren, Arkansas, tornado of April 21, 1996. This report is in.pdf format; you will need ACROBAT to read this file.

Florida Tornadoes 1998

Highway Overpasses as Tornado Shelters: Fallout From the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma/Kansas Violent Tornado Outbreak
This National Severe Storms Laboratory and National Weather Service report on the effectiveness of using the undersides of highway overpasses as shelters from tornadoes and other severe storms concludes that the public has wrongly identified such areas as appropriate shelters. In fact, they are extremely dangerous places in which to hide, and the public should be educated about the danger of such shelters.

Index to Tornado information from USA Today

NCDC Tornado Maps
A complete resource for long-term averages by state (maps - gif).

Oklahoma/Southern Kansas Tornado Outbreak of May 3, 1999
The latest "Service Assessment" from the National Weather Service Office of Climate, Water, and Weather Services examines the May 3 tornadoes in Oklahoma and Kansas, including the devastating F5 vortex that struck Oklahoma City. This file is in.pdf format; you will need ACROBAT to read this file.

Storm Prediction Center Historical Tornado Data Archive

Storm Prediction Center Historical U.S. Convective Wind Data Damage Archive

Tornadoes Going Around in Circles
The mission of the "Why Files" is to "explore the issues of science, math, and technology that lurk behind the headlines of the day." Founded in 1996 as a project of the National Institute for Science Education with support from the National Science Foundation and produced by the Graduate School of the University of Wisconsin, the files include this section which provides background information on tornadoes. Included are an explanation of these phenomena and information on prediction, personal protection, and tornado effects on the natural landscape.

The Tornado Project Online!
The Tornado Project has been locating, organizing and publishing information (and, more recently, video) on tornadoes since 1970. This Web site contains a lot of interesting on-line information on tornadoes including: tornado myths, tornado oddities, personal experiences, tornado chasing, and tornado safety.

Tornado Terror
An account (facts, survivors, costs, officials statements, etc.) of the impact of one tornado in Kansas in 1991. Put together by the Andover Journal-Advocate.

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