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PUBLICATIONID : 47832
PUBLICATIONTYPE : 1
TYPE : Article
TITLE : Normalized Earthquake Damage and Fatalities in the United States: 1900-2005
ORIG_TITLE : Normalized Earthquake Damage and Fatalities in the United States: 1900-2005
AUTHOR : Vranes, K and R Pielke
FIRST_AUTHOR : Vranes, K and R Pielke
AUTHOR_COUNT : 1
ADDRESS : [Vranes, Kevin] Point380 LLC, Boulder, CO 80302 USA; [Pielke, Roger, Jr.] Univ Colorado, Ctr Sci & Technol Policy Res, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA
PUBLISHER : ASCE-AMER SOC CIVIL ENGINEERS
FIRSTAUTHOREMPLOYER : 3
ABBREV_JOURNAL : Nat. Hazards Rev.
BEGINPAGE : 84
ENDPAGE : 101
VOLUME : 10
ISSUE : 3
PUBLISH_DATE : AUG
YEAR : 2009
URL : http://sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/admin/publication_files/resource-2623-2009.21.pdf
REFEREED : 1
RESOURCE : WOS:000208051400002
CITATION : 15
DEPT : CSTPR
LAST_UPDATED : 2017-02-21 11:51:46
ISSN : 1527-6988
IDS : V19CV
DOI : 10.1061/(ASCE)1527-6988(2009)10:3(84)
ABSTRACT : Damage estimates from 80 U. S. earthquakes since 1900 are "normalized" to 2005 dollars by adjusting for inflation, increases in wealth, and changes in population. Factors accounting for mitigation at 1 and 2% loss reduction per year are also considered. The earthquake damage record is incomplete, perhaps by up to 25% of total events that cause damage, but all of the most damaging events are accounted for. For events with damage estimates, cumulative normalized losses since 1900 total $453 billion, or $235 billion and $143 billion when 1 and 2% mitigation is factored, respectively. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire adjusts to $39-$328 billion depending on assumptions and mitigation factors used, likely the most costly natural disaster in U. S. history in normalized 2005 values. Since 1900, 13 events would have caused $1 billion or more in losses had they occurred in 2005; five events adjust to more than $10 billion in damages. Annual average losses range from $1.3 billion to $5.7 billion with an average across data sets and calculation methods of $2.5 billion, below catastrophe model estimates and estimates of average annual losses from hurricanes. Fatalities are adjusted for population increase and mitigation, with five events causing over 100 fatalities when mitigation is not considered, four (three) events when 1% (2%) mitigation is considered. Fatalities in the 1906 San Francisco event adjusts from 3,000 to over 24,000, or 8,900 (3,300) if 1% (2%) mitigation is considered. Implications for comparisons of normalized results with catastrophe model output and with normalized damage profiles of other hazards are considered.
AREA : Engineering; Environmental Sciences & Ecology; Geology; Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences; Water Resources
FIRST_AUTHOR_EMAIL : kvranes@point380.com; pielke@colorado.edu
PUBLICATION : NATURAL HAZARDS REVIEW
PLACE : RESTON
LANGUAGE : English
SERIAL : 47832
PAGES : 84-101
APPROVED : yes
SERIES_VOLUME_NUMERIC : 1
ONLINE_PUBLICATION : no
VERSION : 1
FIRST_AUTHOR_ADDRESS : Vranes, K (reprint author), Point380 LLC, 1375 Walnut St, Boulder, CO 80302 USA.
AUTHOR_OTHER_FORM : Vranes, Kevin; Pielke, Roger, Jr.
FUNDING : Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado
FUNDING_ACKNOWLEDGEMENT : We thank Joel Gratz for sharing processed BEA wealth data. During the term of this research, Kevin Vranes was supported by a Visiting Fellowship of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado.
REFERENCES_NUM : 44
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PUBLISHER_ADDRESS : 1801 ALEXANDER BELL DR, RESTON, VA 20191-4400 USA
COUNT : 1