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PUBLICATIONID : 7278
PUBLICATIONTYPE : 1
TYPE : Article
TITLE : Temporal fluctuations in weather and climate extremes that cause economic and human health impacts: A review
ORIG_TITLE : Temporal fluctuations in weather and climate extremes that cause economic and human health impacts: A review
AUTHOR : Kunkel, KE, RA Pielke and SA Changnon
FIRST_AUTHOR : Kunkel, KE, RA Pielke and SA Changnon
AUTHOR_COUNT : 1
ADDRESS : Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, Boulder, CO 80307 USA; Changnon Climatologists, Mahomet, IL 61853 USA
PUBLISHER : AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC
FIRSTAUTHOREMPLOYER : 3
ABBREV_JOURNAL : Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.
BEGINPAGE : 1077
ENDPAGE : 1098
VOLUME : 80
ISSUE : 6
PUBLISH_DATE : JUN
YEAR : 1999
URL : http://sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/admin/publication_files/1999.11.pdf
REFEREED : 1
RESOURCE : WOS:000081340600002
CITATION : 144
DEPT : CSTPR
LAST_UPDATED : 2016-07-29 08:43:18
ISSN : 0003-0007
IDS : 214RD
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<1077:TFIWAC>2.0.CO;2
ABSTRACT : This paper reviews recent work on trends during this century in societal impacts (direct economic losses and fatalities) in the United States from extreme weather conditions and compares those with trends of associated atmospheric phenomena. Most measures of the economic impacts of weather and climate extremes over the past several decades reveal increasing losses. But trends in most related weather and climate extremes do not show comparable increases with time. This suggests that increasing losses are primarily due to increasing vulnerability arising from a variety of societal changes, including a growing population in higher risk coastal areas and large cities, more property subject to damage, and lifestyle and demographic changes subjecting lives and property to greater exposure. Flood damages and fatalities have generally increased in the last 25 years. While some have speculated that this may be due in part to a corresponding increase in the frequency of heavy rain events, the climate contribution to the observed impacts trends remains to be quantified. There has been a steady increase in hurricane losses. However, when changes in population, inflation, and wealth are considered, there is instead a downward trend. This is consistent with observations of trends in hurricane frequency and intensity. Increasing property losses due to thunderstorm-related phenomena (winds, hail, tornadoes) are explained entirely by changes in societal factors, consistent with the observed trends in the thunderstorm phenomena. Winter storm damages have increased in the last 10-15 years and this appears to be partially due to increases in the frequency of intense nor' easters. There is no evidence of changes in drought-related losses (although data are poor) and no apparent trend in climatic drought frequency. There is also no evidence of changes in the frequency of intense heat or cold waves.
KEYWORD_PLUS : 1995 HEAT-WAVE; UNITED-STATES; TRENDS; FREQUENCY; INTENSITY; MAXIMUM
AREA : Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
PUBLICATION : BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY
PLACE : BOSTON
LANGUAGE : English
SERIAL : 7278
PAGES : 1077-1098
APPROVED : yes
SERIES_VOLUME_NUMERIC : 1
ONLINE_PUBLICATION : no
VERSION : 1
FIRST_AUTHOR_ADDRESS : Kunkel, KE (reprint author), 1301 E Eliot, Urbana, IL 61801 USA
AUTHOR_OTHER_FORM : Kunkel, KE; Pielke, RA; Changnon, SA
REFERENCES_NUM : 77
PUBLISHER_ADDRESS : 45 BEACON ST, BOSTON, MA 02108-3693 USA
COUNT : 1